Wednesday, February 24, 2016

Wind: A Little Scrapbook in Art

Hey! Sorry this blog post is going up so late; I was... well, I was just wasting time to be perfectly honest. After this blog post I still have three cantos of Purgatorio to read.

So, I initially wanted to do a scrapbook in art (if you don't know what those are, see these four posts) about the month of February, but I realized there's not really a lot of art that's specifically about February. Instead, when I heard the wind rushing so forcefully outside that despite my window not being open, the door to my room flew open from it, I decided to make this season's little scrapbook in art about wind.

Hope you enjoy!

The Wind took up the Northern Things (by Emily Dickinson)
The Wind took up the Northern Things
And piled them in the south -
Then gave the East unto the West
And opening his mouth

The four Divisions of the Earth
Did make as to devour
While everything to corners slunk
Behind the awful power -

The Wind - unto his Chambers went
And nature ventured out -
Her subjects scattered into place
Her systems ranged about

Again the smoke from Dwellings rose
The Day abroad was heard -
How intimate, a Tempest past
The Transport of the Bird -

 (Brian Crain)

Excerpt from The Eolian Harp (Samuel Taylor Coleridge)
And that simplest Lute,
Placed length-ways in the clasping casement, hark!
How by the desultory breeze caressed,
Like some coy maid half yielding to her lover,
It pours such sweet upbraiding, as must needs
Tempt to repeat the wrong! And now, its strings
Boldlier swept, the long sequacious notes
Over delicious surges sink and rise,
Such a soft floating witchery of sound
As twilight Elfins make, when they at eve
Voyage on gentle gales from Fairy-Land,
Where Melodies round honey-dropping flowers,
Footless and wild, like birds of Paradise,
Nor pause, nor perch, hovering on untamed wing!
O! the one Life within us and abroad,
Which meets all motion and becomes its soul,
A light in sound, a sound-like power in light,
Rhythm in all thought, and joyance everywhere—
Methinks, it should have been impossible
Not to love all things in a world so filled;
Where the breeze warbles, and the mute still air
Is Music slumbering on her instrument.

    And thus, my Love! as on the midway slope
Of yonder hill I stretch my limbs at noon,
Whilst through my half-closed eyelids I behold
The sunbeams dance, like diamonds, on the main,
And tranquil muse upon tranquility:
Full many a thought uncalled and undetained,
And many idle flitting phantasies,
Traverse my indolent and passive brain,
As wild and various as the random gales
That swell and flutter on this subject Lute!

    And what if all of animated nature
Be but organic Harps diversely framed,
That tremble into thought, as o’er them sweeps
Plastic and vast, one intellectual breeze,
At once the Soul of each, and God of all? 
(Susan Gardner)
Desolate February (by me)
Wind washes & whooshes over
February wastelands.
When I wake,
yesterday's snow is gone.
Is it March yet?
Is it still February?
Has the world
wandered away from the year
to a place without seasons?
Who is alive in the wind?
The dead come alive
in a February wind.
Who can survive
in the waste?
Grey rain,
of frozen earth,
mud makes.
Who sleeps there
down in the mud?
When our sunrise is missing its sun.
(Bridget Beth Collins)

(Winnie the Pooh)

Excerpt from The Graveyard by the Sea (Paul Valery)
No, no! Arise! The future years unfold.
Shatter, O body, meditation's mould!
And, O my breast, drink in the wind's reviving!
A freshness, exhalation of the sea,
Restores my soul . . . Salt-breathing potency!
Let's run at the waves and be hurled back to living!
Yes, mighty sea with such wild frenzies gifted
(The panther skin and the rent chlamys), sifted
All over with sun-images that glisten,
Creature supreme, drunk on your own blue flesh,
Who in a tumult like the deepest hush
Bite at your sequin-glittering tail -- yes, listen!
The wind is rising! . . . We must try to live!
The huge air opens and shuts my book: the wave
Dares to explode out of the rocks in reeking
Spray. Fly away, my sun-bewildered pages!
Break, waves! Break up with your rejoicing surges
This quiet roof where sails like doves were pecking.

(Morris Graves)

Thank you for reading through this. As always, if you have any of your own favorite artworks about wind, please share in the comments.
See you next week,

Thursday, February 18, 2016

Some Actually Useful Character Questions

Character development is a major issue for a lot of writers. Character drives most stories, and is the main reason why a lot of readers care about stories at all. Even if your plot is original, your story won't work if your characters aren't fascinating, complex, and realistic. So, a lot of writers try to use character questionnaires- basically these surveys to fill out for your characters, which are available all over the Internet. They can be fun, but they're also not usually very useful. And sometimes they're not fun because you're like "what would my character order at Starbucks? I don't know, I don't even know the Starbucks menu! Starbucks doesn't even exist in my universe!"

So I thought for today I would compile some useful character questions for fleshing out your characters and getting to know them a little better. I couldn't come up with a whole lot of them, but that's because the answers aren't really short one-word things so much as full paragraphs of analysis and backstory.

How do they talk, and why?
This is useful for developing dialogue styles. Each character should have a unique enough speaking style that you can tell what they're saying even without a dialogue tag. To establish this kind of unique dialogue, step away from the story and figure out how each character talks. Do they use big words, lots of slang, a particular dialect? Short sentences or long monologues? Awkward insecure "um"s peppering their speech, or properly enunciated grammar? You should also find the root in the character's personality for their dialogue style. If you understand the character's personality, you'll get a better feel for how they speak.

What were the most important events of their life before the story started?
Stories famously consist of "protagonist's life was like this, then everything changed when plot." There isn't a plot if something doesn't change, and that change affects the characters. To mark how important the change is, you should understand how they were before any of this started. The events of their life before the story are what makes your character on page 1 and will continue to be relevant until the end of the story.

What's their fatal flaw? What are their other real flaws? Where did they originate?
Fatal flaws are part of classical story structures, but they're useful because they're what cause a character to screw up the direction of the plot. And characters need to screw up their missions, otherwise it's boring. They also need to have plenty of other flaws, otherwise they're boring. And they need to be real flaws, the kind of thing that would make you really be irritated with someone if they had those flaws in real life. If your character doesn't have any flaws, don't worry- you can find their flaws naturally from their other traits. Are they smart? Maybe they're pretentious or arrogant. Are they shy? Maybe they're shy to a fault and socially awkward. Are they confident? Maybe they're stubborn and refuse to listen to others.
Also, it helps to understand where these flaws come from, because it will help the character's journey to overcome them be more poignant and real.

What's their favorite book/TV show/musical artist/etc?
Often we associate books, TV shows, and stuff like that with personality traits. If you have to try and pin down favorite works of art for your character, you'll have to figure out what kind of things they like and why they like them.

Why do they want to do the thing they have to do for the plot?
Why does Frodo want to take the ring to Mordor? Why does Holden Caulfield want to mope around New York City for a few days? If your character has no driving reason to do their plot thing, they're just some vessel for the events of the plot. They have to have something deep within themselves that makes them decide to do the stuff they do. What is it?

What are they afraid of? What triggers a serious emotional reaction in them?
Characters should have to come up against something they fear, or something that makes them react emotionally in a serious way. You should know what this is and why, so that you can handle these scenes better.

What characteristic do they most pride themselves on?
Keep in mind, this rarely matches up with their actual best characteristic. You should figure out how the character sees themselves so that you see how they present themselves to the world, and then how they will inevitably have to deal with presenting their true selves to the world and to themselves.

Who is their family? How do they get along with them?
"Family" doesn't necessarily mean blood family- it means the people that they trust and rely on. It can be possible that they don't have that, but at least figure out what constituted the place where they came from and the people associated with that.

What people, events, media, etc influenced their way of thinking the most?
Your character has a certain view of the world and of life. You should know what that is and where it came from.

How do they feel about the other characters? Why?
This is more of a character relationship thing, but it also helps to understand how your character views the world and will help you write their interactions with the others.

What's their Hogwarts house?
This is a notoriously difficult question that has split families apart in trying to decide the right answer. Because of this, you will have to peer into your character's personality a lot in order to try and determine which house is right for them. The definition of each of the houses is pretty complex, and people are not singularly brave, smart, nice, or ambitious- so trying to determine which complex set of characteristics best matches them forces you to think a lot about the character.

OK, well, I hope these helped. If you have other suggestions, please share them in the comments. As usual, sorry that this is going up late Thursday night instead of Wednesday afternoon. It's because I am not a very reliable person.
Thanks again,

Wednesday, February 10, 2016

Ten Edits to Run Through Your Manuscript to Make It, At Least, Not Suck

Hey! Sorry again for skipping my post last week. And that this one's late. I guess you're used to this by now, though. On to the blog post:

You know those cleanses healthy people sometimes do? Like, drink pureed carrots for a week to get rid of toxins or whatever? Well, at a certain point in editing, manuscripts need to go through cleanses. And how would I know this, you ask. Well, I know this not just because I've arbitrarily appointed myself as some sort of authority on writing even though I'm not published and don't have any sort of credentials... but because I have to read unpublished manuscripts submitted to agents now.

And just... first things first, if you're submitting to an agent, you should not be submitting your first draft. Or your second, third, or fourth. You should have done some serious, serious editing before you even thought about submitting. That manuscript should have gone through several rounds of critique partners, English teachers you somehow roped into editing your grammar, beta readers, etc. You should be able to at the very least read your own manuscript without finding it riddled with errors.

But I guess if you don't have experience with editing novels, this can be difficult. I wouldn't recommend starting with this blog post for sources on editing. Before you can even think about the edits I'm suggesting below, you should probably rewrite the whole novel from scratch and do a complete overhaul, and then probably a few other edits before you get to this point.

The edits below, however, are based on mistakes that are just... just way too common. Like, annoyingly common. And they're so terrible that it makes me really want to hate a manuscript, even if the plot's good. So if initial edits and critique partners don't catch these mistakes, make sure you catch them before submitting to agents. If you do this, your manuscript will stand out from the crowd at least the tiniest bit in the sense that it won't want to make the interns reading it punch something.

Please. Please learn how to use punctuation. Or, if you're allergic to proper punctuation, give your manuscript to someone who knows how to use punctuation and give them free reign with rearranging all your commas. This is surprisingly important. Punctuation seriously governs the way people read a text, and if you're placing commas everywhere, or creating nightmarish run-on sentences, or anything like that, it makes what could be a good text unreadable.

I touched on this in my post Five Mistakes Beginning Writers Make, but it apparently isn't just beginning writers. I'm putting this in capital letters so that even if you skim the post you won't miss it: YOU NEED MORE PARAGRAPH BREAKS. If your story is told in giant chunks, it is impossible to read. You absolutely need paragraph breaks every time a new person starts speaking. Besides that, where to break the paragraphs is up to you, but it needs to be as often as possible. Why? Because it makes it easier to read, and I swear to God if you think that your story should be a challenge to read, you can just go submit to the Pretentious Early Twentieth Century Modernists Press because no one else wants to read your annoying book.
Paragraph breaks, as often as you can possibly fit them in, are an absolute necessity. Please go back through your book and break up your nightmare paragraphs.

No matter how much description that you, the author, think is necessary, you probably need less. Readers are smarter than you think, and one of the great things about reading is building a setting in your imagination. And it doesn't matter how intricately you describe the protagonist's house- if a reader wants to picture their own house, they will, and the three pages you spent describing furniture is just going to be useless gunk that makes them want to stop reading.
Of course, I would hope that at this point in the editing process, you've already got rid of the giant page-long awful descriptions that come with first drafts. But there's still little bits of excessive description lurking all over your manuscript, like dust and dirt clinging to a surface you thought you already cleaned. Go through and cut everything except what is necessary, and maybe a few bits that help set the mood in scenes where mood is vital, and if you must, allow yourself to keep one or two turns of phrase that you're really attached to. Everything else, gut it. Your beta readers (and potentially your future agent/editor) will tell you if they feel like something's missing.

This is specifically for adult authors writing young adult manuscripts. Even in good YA manuscripts, you'll still catch the occasional bit of slang that no one says anymore, but in the bad ones, the teenagers just seem unrecognizable. Please note, because I've seen this more than once: just because technology and the Internet seem like FUTURE SCI-FI MAGIC to you, doesn't mean that teenagers who were born into a world with iPhones are going to think like that. Thirteen-year-olds don't go on the Internet and marvel at how absolutely strange it is that we can connect to the World Wide Web at the press of a button. There are a lot of things that teenagers have different mentalities about now, as well- no one gets made fun of for playing video games or reading comic books anymore, since those things are mainstream culture now. Basically, either immerse yourself in youth culture somehow so that you don't sound super antiquated, or give your manuscript to a couple of teenagers and ask them if any parts sound unrealistic.

The beginning of your book is the place where you hook your reader, and the place where an agent or editor is going to decide whether they care enough to put effort into this. This should be the place in your book that you polish the most and try to make the most interesting, the place where it is absolutely vital that your reader just can't stop reading. For some reason, though, a lot of authors start their book off with some boring nonsense that no one wants to read.
Mind you, I'm not telling you to start in the middle of an action-y fight. In fact, it's usually better if you don't, unless it's a thriller or something I guess, because fights aren't that interesting unless you care about the characters and plot. And at the beginning of the book, your reader doesn't care yet about the characters and plot. You have to make them care.
So go through your first few scenes and get rid of descriptions, pointless action, boring exposition, and stuff that doesn't make any sense without context. Instead, put something there that would be fun and interesting to read for anyone, even if they know nothing about your book.

Most manuscripts could benefit from being shorter, so this is a good idea if you're trying to shorten word count. Additionally, too many extra words everywhere can just clog up your manuscript and make it annoying. Comb through your book and see what words each sentence can do without. One common edit is to get rid of every instance of "that." Kira Brighton has a good post about words to get rid of here. If you're worried that those words were necessary, again, don't worry- your beta readers and editors will let you know if they feel something's missing.

This is one that my creative writing teacher suggested to me while helping me edit my manuscript. Dialogue is the heart of novels- it's where character is revealed and where plot, for the most part, really happens. So your dialogue has to be stellar.
First: if you're writing a spec fic (fantasy, sci fi, etc) book, it's common to fall into the trap of "fancy dialogue." Antagonists giving mustache-twirlingly Victorian speeches, mentors talking like Gandalf and Shakespeare had a word-baby, ancient magical beings practically speaking in iambic pentameter. There is zero need for this. It's difficult to read and it's cliche and annoying. No one, not even fancy magic people, talks like they're in a book; they talk normally. Get rid of all unnecessarily fancy dialogue.
Second: differentiate dialogue between characters. Everyone can't speak the same way, because in reality, everyone has different characteristics to their speech. Since dialogue is so vital to revealing character, you should be sure that your dialogue actually reveals the character of whoever's speaking. You should be able to take a line entirely out of context and be able to tell who said it. Try going through and reading every line of dialogue to ensure that it really feels like this character said it.

If you're writing a book about something you haven't personally experienced, you should have done  a lot of research on the subject before writing the book. If you didn't do that research before writing, you should do it now. If you suck at research, don't worry; you're not writing an academic paper, you just need to understand the topic. You can watch YouTube videos and read fun books and blog posts (as long as they're by people who know what they're talking about). This includes if you're writing a book with characters of a different identity group.
If you know anyone who's an expert in the topic, or who belongs to an identity you're writing about, see if they're willing to read through your book to check for inaccuracies. Because you never know if one day someone who knows about the topic will read your book and cringe at how badly you messed up. Plus, you should be respectful of the people you're writing about.

One of the most annoying things about some manuscripts is the terrible pacing, especially at the beginning. If you drag too slow, I stop caring; if you whiz by everything too fast and throw scenes at me, I get confused. And if you do a combination of the two, I'm just going to throw your manuscript out.
Editing for pacing is difficult, but it's necessary. Your book needs to move along like a well-edited movie- moving fast at scenes where things are high-intensity, and slowing it down when we need to understand details, with a good, constantly moving pace in the scenes in between. You need periods of cooling off after heated moments, and something exciting after a slow scene. Etc. This is something that beta readers help with a lot- you've read your book too many times at this point to understand that something is too weirdly paced. A fresh pair of eyes can tell you when they're getting bored or confused.

This is the easy, but boring, edit. If a manuscript is riddled with basic mechanical errors, it doesn't make me personally want to stop reading, but it is annoying and shows unprofessionalism. And there are some agents who are hella strict about that. So go through and look for every typo, missed word, grammatically incorrect sentence, etc, with a hawk's eye. Or, alternately, get one of your grammatically talented friends to do it.

I realize now that half my advice is "get someone else to read it." So that'll be my final piece of advice: use critique partners. It is vital that someone else looks at your book before you start submitting it, preferably a lot of people. You, the writer, are way too close to your work to be able to edit it thoroughly. And a variety of readers will give you a variety of opinions, which you need, because your ideal audience isn't going to be a hive mind.

Anyway... I hope those ideas were useful. There are way more edits out there you should be putting your book through, suggested by way more experienced authors in their blog posts, but these are good for your basic making-your-book-not-totally-suck needs.

Good luck editing! Thanks for reading,